Discriminación de género en redes laborales

César Vladimir Martínez-Arango, Coralia Azucena Quintero-Rojas, Lari Arthur Viianto


This work circumscribes to the literature of Agent-Based Models (MBA) and its main objective is to analyze the differences in the labor market performance of men and women, under the assumption that there is a cultural difference in the way that society treats each gender. For this purpose, we develop a model of information transfer through a fixed social network. Its nodes correspond to pairs of man and woman in the labor force. This model is used to assess the impact of gender roles on the labor market. Our results from simulations show that, even without salary or job discrimination, gender roles have a negative impact on gender gaps concerning unemployment, participation and the probability of being hired through the network.


Gender Discrimination; Labor Market; Social Networks; Agent-Based Modeling


Arendt, H. (2005). La Condición Humana, Estado y Sociedad Vol. 14, Barcelona: Paidós.

Barrufini, M. (2014). “An Agent-Based Simulation of the Swiss Labor Market: an Alternative for Policy Evaluation”. Conference Paper.

Becker, G. S.(1957, 1971). The Economics of Discrimination. USA: Chicago University Press.

Becker, G. S. (1965). “A Theory of the Allocation of Time”. The Economic Journal, 75(299), 493–517.

Berg, N., y Donald L. (2002). ‘‘Measuring the Effect of Sexual Orientation on Income: Evidence of Discrimination?’’. Contemporary Economic Policy, 20(4), 394–414.

Black, D. A., Seth G. S., y Lowell J. T. (2007). ‘‘The Economics of Gay and Lesbian Families’’. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 21(2), 53–70.

Blandford, J. M. (2003). ‘‘The Nexus of Sexual Orientation and Gender in the Determination of Earnings’’. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 56(4), 622–42.

Blinder, A. S. (1973). “Wage Discrimination: Reduced Form and Structural Estimates”. The Journal of Human Resources, 8(4), 436-455.

Burda, M., Hamermesh, D. S. y Weil, P. (2007). “Total Work, Gender and Social Norms”. NBER Working Paper No. 13000.

Calvó-Armengol, A. (2000). “Job Contact Networks”, Unpublished.

Calvo-Armengol, A. y Jackson, M. (2004). “The Effects of Social Networks on Employment and Inequality”. The American Economic Review, 94(3), 426-454.

Clain, S. H., y Leppel, K. (2001). ‘‘An Investigation into Sexual Orientation Discrimination as an Explanation for Wage Differences’’. Applied Economics, 33(1), 37–47.

Corbett, C., y Hill, C. (2012). Graduating to a Pay Gap: The Earnings of Women and Men One Year after College Graduation. Washington: American Association of University Women.

Daneshvary, N., Waddopus, J. C., Wimmer, B. S. (2009). “Previous Marriage and the Lesbian Wage Premium”. Industrial Relations, 48(3), 432-453.

Duval-Hernández, Robert y Orraca-Romano, P. (2009). “A Cohort Analysis of Labor Participation in Mexico, 1987-2009”. IZA Discussion Paper Series No. 4371.

Evangelia, B. (2012). “Global employment Trends for Women”. International Labour Organization Discussion paper.

Encuesta Nacional de Ocupación y Empleo (2012). Indicadores de ocupación y empleo al segundo trimestre de 2012. Disponible en: .

El Banco Mundial (2012). Mujeres tienen menos probabilidades que hombres de participar en el mercado laboral en la mayoría de los países. Disponible en: .

Fernández, R. (2007). “Alfred Marshall Lecture. Women, Work and Culture”. Journal of the European Economic Association, 5(2-3), 305–332.

García-Bermúdez, K. J. y. Mendoza-Cota, J. E. (2009). “Discriminación Salarial por Género en México”. Problemas del Desarrollo, 40(156), 77-99.

Gatti, D. D., Gallegati, M., y Desiderio, S. (2014). The dynamics of the labour market in an agent-based model with financial constraints. En Cristini, A., Fazzari, S., Greenberg, E. y Leoni, R. (Eds.), Cycles, Growth and the Great Recession (117-129). Routledge.

Granovetter, M. S. (1973) “The Strength of Weak Ties”. American Journal of Sociology, 78(6), 1360-1380.

Klawitter, M. M., y Flatt, V. (1998). ‘‘The Effects of State and Local Antidiscrimination Policies on Earnings for Gays and Lesbians’’. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 17(4), 658–86.

Kunze, A. (2005). “The Evolution of the Gender Wage Gap”. Labor Economics, 12, 73-97.

Loury, G. (1977). A Dynamic Theory of Racial Income Differences. En Wallace, P. A. (Ed.), Women, Minorities, and Employment Discrimination. USA: Lexington Books.

Myers, C. A. y Shultz, G. P. (1951). The Dynamics of Labor Markets. New York: Prentice Hall.

Neugart, M. (2006). “Labor market policy evaluation with an agent-based model”. WZB Discussion Paper.

Ng, T. S., y Kang, Y. C. (2013). “The inquiry of labor market dynamics in knowledge economies: an agent-based approach”. Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems, 43(2), 416-427.

Oaxaca, R. (1973). “Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets”. International Economic Review, 14(3), 693-709.

O'Neill, J. y O'Neill, D. (2005). “What Do Wage Differentials Tell Us about Labor Market Discrimination?”. NBER Working Paper No. 11240.

Rees, A y Shultz, G. P. (1970). “Workers in an Urban Labor Market”. American Economic Review, 56, 559-566.

Sanborn, H. (1964). “Pay Differences between Men and Women”, Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 17, 534-550.

Takács, K., Squazzoni, F., y Bravo, G. (2012). “The network antidote: an agent-based model of discrimination in labor markets”. MKE 2012 Conference, Budapest.

Tassier, T. (2008). “Referral Hiring and Gender Segregation in the Workplace”. Eastern Economic Journal, 34(4), 429-440.

Zaiceva, A. y Zimmermann, K. F. (2014). “Children, Kitchen, Church: does ethnicity Matter?”. Review of Economics of the Household, 12(1), 83-103.

Contador de visualizaciones:

  • Abstract : 28 vistas.
  • PDF (Español (España)) : 28 vistas.
  • Refbacks

    • There are currently no refbacks.

    Copyright (c) 2015 Ensayos Revista de Economía (Ensayos Journal of Economics)

    Creative Commons License
    This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

    Información Legal
    Ensayos Revista de Economía, Vol. 36, No. 1, Mayo 2017, es una publicación semestral editada por la Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, a través de la Facultad de Economía con la colaboración del Centro de Investigaciones Económicas, Av. Lázaro Cárdenas 4600 Ote., Fracc. Residencial Las Torres, Monterrey, N.L. C.P. 64930. Tel. +52 (81) 8329 4150 Ext. 2463 Fax. +52 (81) 8342 2897. Editor Responsable: Daniel Flores Curiel, Reserva de Derechos al Uso Exclusivo No. 04-2015-091013542400-203, ISSN 2448-8402, ambos otorgados por el Instituto Nacional del Derecho de Autor. Responsable de la última actualización de este Número, Facultad de Economía UANL, M.C. Hans Y. Martinez Torres, Av. Lázaro Cárdenas 4600 Ote., Fracc. Residencial Las Torres, Monterrey, N.L. C.P. 64930. Tel. +52 (81) 8329 4150. Fecha última de actualización 9 de Mayo de 2017.

    Las opiniones y contenidos expresados en los artículos son responsabilidad exclusiva de los autores.

     Licencia de Creative Commons

    El contenido de Ensayos Revista de Economía está bajo términos de la licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento 4.0 Internacional.